## What is Quantum Supremacy?

An experimental demonstration of quantum computer’s dominance and advantage over classical computer by performing calculations that was impossible. To confirm that quantum supremacy has been achieved, computer scientists must be able to show that a classical computer could never have solved the problem while also proving that the quantum computer can perform the calculation quickly.

Computer scientists hope that quantum supremacy will lead to the cracking of Shor’s algorithm — a currently impossible calculation that is the basis of most modern cryptography — as well as advantages in drug development, weather forecasts, stock trades and material designs.

## Applications of quantum supremacy

Some people believe a quantum computer that achieves quantum supremacy could be the most disruptive new technology since the Intel 4004 microprocessor was invented in 1971. Certain professions and areas of business will be significantly impacted by quantum supremacy. Examples include:

- The ability to perform more complex simulations on a larger scale will provide companies with improved efficiency, deeper insight and better forecasting, thus improving optimization processes.
- Enhanced simulations that model complex quantum systems, such as biological molecules, would be possible.
- Combining quantum computing with artificial intelligence (AI) could make AI immensely smarter than it is now.
- New customized drugs, chemicals and materials can be designed, modeled and modified to help cultivate new pharmaceutical, commercial or business products.
- The ability to factor extremely large numbers could break current, long-standing forms of encryption.

Overall, quantum supremacy could start a new market for devices that have the potential to boost AI, intricately model molecular interactions and financial systems, improve weather forecasts and crack previously impossible codes.

## Experiments Performed

- Google-Nasa 2019
- USTC China 2020

## Google-Nasa 2019 Sycamore Processor Experiment

- Take an example of newbie, created basic Computer algorithm which in Quantum computing at this stage is a model/circuit of 1000’s of Quantum logic gates. As there is no structure in random circuits that classical algorithm can exploits and emulation of that circuit will take a huge effort of modern superComputer.
- Each run of Quantum circuit on a Quantum Computer produces a bitstring (0001000). Due to some Quantum interference some bitstring are much more likely to occur than others when experiment is repeated.
- Finding exact bitstring for a random circuit becomes exponentially difficult on classical Computer as number of qubits and number of gate cycles/depth grows.
- Firstly a simplified circuit of 12 to 53 qubits while keeping circuit depth constant ,post verifying system conditions,
- Random hard circuits with 53 qubits and increased depth till the point classical simulation became infeasible.
- Result of this experiment of first experimental challenge against extended Church-Turing Thesis which states that classical Computers can efficiently implement any “reasonable” model of computation.
- Success was due to using new type of control nob that is able to turn off interaction between neighbouring systems to reduce errors.
- New control calibration was developed to avoid qubit defects.

## Jiuzhang- Boson Sampling USTC Experiment

- Generates a distribution number that is exceedingly difficult for a classical Computer to replicate
- Firstly photons are sent into a network channels ,then photons are encountered a series of beam splitters ,each of which sends the photon down two path simultaneously, called a Quantum superposition
- Paths also merged together and repeated splitting and merging causes the photon to interfere with one another according to Quantum rules.
- At end number of photons in each of the output channels is measured.
- When repeated many times, this process produces a distribution of number based how many photons were found in each output.
- If operated with large number of photons and many channels, the Quantum Computer will produce a distribution of number that is too complex for a classical Computer to calculate.
- Limitation of Jiuzhang: It can perform only a single type of task i.e. Boson Sampling while Google’s Quantum Computer can be programmed to execute variety of algorithm, but on the other hand including Xanadu’s are programmable.

- Take an example of a newbie, created a basic computer algorithm which in Quantum computing at this stage is a model/circuit of 1000’s of Quantum logic gates. As there is no structure in random circuits that a classical algorithm can exploit, emulation of that circuit will take a huge effort of modern supercomputers.
- Each run of Quantum circuit on a Quantum Computer produces a bitstring (0001000). Due to some Quantum interference some bit strings are much more likely to occur than others when experiment is repeated.
- Finding exact bitstring for a random circuit becomes exponentially difficult on classical computers as the number of qubits and number of gate cycles/depth grows.
- Firstly a simplified circuit of 12 to 53 qubits while keeping circuit depth constant, post verifying system conditions.
- Random hard circuits with 53 qubits and increased depth till the point classical simulation became infeasible.
- Result of this experiment of first experimental challenge against extended Church-Turing Thesis which states that classical Computers can efficiently implement any “reasonable” model of computation.
- Success was due to using a new type of control knob that is able to turn off interaction between neighbouring systems to reduce errors.
- New control calibration was developed to avoid qubit defects

- Generates a distribution number that is exceedingly difficult for a classical Computer to replicate
- Firstly photons are sent into a network channel, then photons are encountered by a series of beam splitters ,each of which sends the photon down two paths simultaneously, called a Quantum superposition.
- Paths also merge together and repeated splitting and merging causes the photon to interfere with one another according to Quantum rules.
- At the end the number of photons in each of the output channels is measured.
- When repeated many times, this process produces a distribution of numbers based on how many photons were found in each output.
- If operated with large number of photons and many channels, the Quantum Computer will produce a distribution of number that is too complex for a classical Computer to calculate ∙ Limitation of Jiuzhang: It can perform only a single type of task i.e. Boson Sampling while Google’s Quantum Computer can be programmed to execute a variety of algorithms, but on the other hand including Xanadu’s (Toronto based company focused on building photonic Quantum Computers) are programmable.

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